இந்தப் பக்கத்தை தமிழில் வாசிக்க: இலக்குவனார்
Ilakkuvanar (November 17, 1909 – September 3, 1973) was a Tamil scholar, a Professor, Researcher on Grammar. He translated the Tholkappiyam into English. He was active in the Chaste Tamil Movement and also a supporter of the Dravidian movement.
Birth, Early life, Education
Ilakkuvanar was born on November 17, 1909 (Thiruvalluvar year 1940, Karthikai Month, 1st day) in Vaimedu, a small town near Tirutthuraipoondi in the then Thanjavur district (now in Nagapattinam district) of Tamil Nadu, as the second son to the couple Rathinathaachi and Singaravelu Pillai, a small landowner, grocer. He lost his father at the age of four.
Ilakkuvanar had his primary education from Thinnai Pallikkoodam (Direct tutoring from the learned people in front yard of their houses) from Subbaiah & later Kannusamy teacher in Vaimedu. Later, His studies from class three to class five at a government primary school in Vaimedu, got suspended. He assisted his elder brother Nallaperumal as a farm hand and tended the cattle. At the initiative of his mother, with the help of his cousin Sathasivam Pillai, he restarted his studies from class five in 1924 at the middle school of Thanjavur King Serfoji's Trust at Rajamadam. There, when he studied in the eighth grade, his name Lakshmanan given by his parents was rechristened to "Ilakkuvan" by his Tamil teacher, Sami Chidambaranar.
In 1924, Ilakkuvanar attended high school in Orathanadu, through the trust setup by King Serfoji. He studied at Thiruvaiyaru King's College and graduated as Pulavar (Tamil Pundit) in 1936. While studying there, Ilakkuvanar was elected as the secretary of the 'Thiruvalluvar Student Union' of the college. According to the rules laid down by the University of Madras those days, he was awarded the BOL (Bachelor of Oriental Learning) degree, as he passed second division in intermediate class and BA class in English. Ilakkuvanar passed the English exams, got his M.A English degree along with teaching. Later, he researched on the topic of Origins and Growth of Tamil Language and received MOL (Master of Oriental Learning) degree in Eastern languages.
While working at Thyagaraja College, Madurai, Ilakkuvanar translated Tholkappiyam into English and presented a thesis titled 'Tholkappiyam in English with critical studies' and received his Doctorate in 1963. Due to his various works and layoffs, he was only able to achieve this at the age of 53.
While working as a teacher in Nannilam, Ilakkuvanar married Pattammal. Since Pattammal passed away at a young age, he married Malarkodi in an anti-caste marriage when he was working as a teacher in Tiruttani. Later he also married Pattammal's younger sibling Neelakandeswari.
Ilakkuvanar had 11 children with the names of Thiruvelan, Maraimalai, Thiruvengadam, Thiruvalluvan, Mathiyazhagi, Nallaperumal, Selvamani, Nagavalli, Angaiarkanni, Arutselvi & Ambalavanan. Among them, Maramalai Ilakkuvanar and Thiruvalluvan Ilakkuvanar are Tamil scholars.
Educational, Academic Works
After graduating from Thiruvaiyaru King's College, Ilakkuvanar worked in the same college for a brief period. Between June 1936 to 1942, He worked as a Tamil teacher in Tanjore District Board High Schools. From 1942 to 1945 he worked as a lecturer back at Thiruvaiyaru King's College and was appointed as the Principal of the Tamil College in Kulasekarapattinam started by S.T. Nayakam, who was one of the leaders of the self-respect movement then. Ilakkuvanar worked as a Tamil teacher in many towns like Kudavasal, Nannilam, Tiruvarur. He was Tamil Lecturer in Tirunelveli MDT Hindu College (Madurai Diraviyam Thayumanavar) and in V.E. Senthirkumara Nadar college as a Head of Tamil Department, established in Virudhunagar by 1947. Between 1952 and 1955 in Pudukottai, Ilakkuvanar conducted Thirukkural classes every Sunday in the 'Thirukkural Kazhagam' created by B.A. Subramanianar.
In the academic year 1955-1956, Ilakkuvanar was the Headmaster of Thiruverumbur Mukulathor High School, from 1956 to 1958 he was a Tamil Lecturer at Kasana College, Erode, from 1958 to 1961 he was the the Head of Tamil Department at D.T. Hindu College in Nagercoil, Head of Tamil Department at Thyagaraja Arts College, Madurai from 1961 to 1965, Head of Tamil Department at Madras State College and Head of Tamil Department at Osmania University, Hyderabad. Before retiring Ilakkuvanar worked as the principal of Nagercoil D.T. Hindu College till December 31, 1970. M. Karunanidhi, R.Nallakannu, K. Venkatasubramaniam, R. Kalimuthu, Meera, Inkulab, M. Mehta were some of the known people who studied Tamil under him.
- The weekly "Sanga Ilakkiyam" which ran from 1944 to 1947, spread Sangam literature among the masses, which was considered only for the poets. He introduced Sangam Literature in the form of short stories and as or-anga dramas (One-Act-Plays).
- Ilakkiyam (Twice Monthly) was a magazine for the chaste Tamil Movement magazine from Virudhunagar.
- Dravida Koottarasu is a journal of Dravidian movement politics published from Tanjore. It was also published as a daily newspaper for seven months from May 1965.
- Kuralneri came out from Madurai. This is a book that promotes Thirukkural.
- Ilakkuvanar has also brought out English versions of his magazine under the names Dravidian Federation and Kuralneri.
Ilakkuvanar learned principles and tenets of the Dravidian movement from his teacher Sami Chidambaranar in his youth. He also became an ardent supporter of E.V. Ramasamy. He wrote articles in the Kudiyarasu magazine during his school days. Ilakkuvanar was arrested on February 1, 1965, on fourteen charges including one attempting to kill ministers during the anti-Hindi war that began on January 25, 1965. After a month and a week of imprisonment, he was released with an order not to leave Thirunagar and to be 'imprisoned at any time'. In the general election held in the year 1952 in Virudhunagar Constituency, Ilakkuvanar campaigned in support of G.T. Naidu who contested against K. Kamaraj. Due to this he was expelled from Virudhunagar College. He wrote a verse 'Thuratthappatten' on being expelled.
On May 5, 1965, Ilakkuvanar planned a 'Tamil rights march' from Kanyakumari to Chennai demanding that Tamil should be made the medium of instruction in colleges and at all levels just like how Tamil was made the medium in high schools. So, on May 1, 1965, Ilakkuvanar was arrested under the National Security Act and imprisoned in Vellore Jail for three and a half months. As a result, he was removed from his post as a Tamil professor in Thyagaraja College, Madurai.
On August 6, 1962, in the town Thirunagar next to Madurai, Ilakkuvanar started Tamil Preservation Society with the aim 'Tamilmozhi Vaaznthaal Tamilagam Vaazum'. ( Tamilnadu will, when Tamil thrives). Ilakkuvanar became the president of this association and R. Ilankumaran was made General Secretary. This association worked with four action plans Tamizhil Pesuga ! Tamizhil Ezhuthuga ! Tamizhil Peyariduga ! Tamizhil Payilga ! '. (Converse, Write, Christen, Learn in Tamil)
Ilakkuvanar is primarily a cultural activist. He was associated with the chaste Tamil movement and continued to fight in the anti-Hindi movement. In between he wrote. He authored a number of explanatory texts with the aim of introducing Sangam literature and Thirukkural to the general public. Ilakkuvanar's Tholkappiyam translation and Tholkappiyam research are considered important in the field of literature. He is one of the foremost personalities of the Tamiziyam cultural movement. Ilakkuvanar can be placed on par with Devaneya Paavaanar for his contributions.
Due to diabetes, Ilakkuvanar died on September 3, 1973.
Sahitya Akademi , in the line of its 'Indiya Ilakkiya Sirpigal', has published his biography penned by his son, Maramalai Ilakkuvanar (Web Library).
Ilakkuvanar's primary contributions to Literature are of Tholkappiyam translation to English and creation of Tamil glossary for art. Ilakkuvanar had the same vision and body of work compared to that of Devaneya Paavaanar.
- Ezhilarasi Allathu Kathalin Vettri (verse) (1933)
- Maanavar Aatrupadai (verse)
- Thuratthappatten (1952) (verse)
- Tamizhisaip Paadalgal (verse)
- En Vazhkkai Por (Autobiography) (1972)
- Amaichar Yaar? (Research) (1949)
- Ammoovanar (Research)
- Ellorum Innaattu Mannar - Part 1 (Research) (>1956)
- Ellorum Innaattu Mannar - Part 2 (Research) (>1956)
- Thirukkural ELiya Pozhippurai (treatise)
- Tholkappiya ViLakkam (treatise)
- Maamoolanar Kaathar Kaatchigal (treatise) (>1956)
- Valluvar Vaguttha Arasiyal (Research)
- Valluvar Kanda Illaram (Research)
- Ilakkiyam Koorum Tamizhar Vaazviyal (Research)
- Karumaveerar Kamarasar (History)
- Annavukku Paaviyal Vaazhthu (verse)
- Tamil Karpikkum Murai (pedagogy Research)
- Tholkappiya Aaraichi (1961) (Research)
- Sanga Ilakkiya Solloviyangal (1990) (non-fiction)
- Tholkappiyam in English with Critical Studies
- Tamil Language (1959)
- The Making of Tamil Grammar
- Brief Study of Tamil words
- Multi personality of Dr. S. Ilakkuvanar-Critical Studies in Tholkappiyam
- Tamilonline - Thendral Tamil Magazine - Munnodi - C. Ilakkuvanar
- C. Ilakkuvanar 10 | hindutamil.in
- Tamilpani Mandram
- Ilakkuvanar - Dinamani Article
- S. Ramakrishnan en vazhkkai por pattri
- Thaduppu Kaaval Sattathil Kaithu Seiyappatta Muthal Tamilarignar C. Ilakkuvanar - Ninaivu Naal Indru - Tamil Valai
- Indiya Ilakkiya Sirpigal Ilakkuvanar Inaiya Noolagam
- Agaramuthala Inaiyapakkam, Ilakkuvanar Nool