இந்தப் பக்கத்தை தமிழில் வாசிக்க: கபிலர் குன்று
Kabilar Rock (Kabilar Kuntru) is a rock hill located at the place where Kabilar was believed to have breathed last. Kabilar Rock is located at Tirukoilur in Viluppuram district. A stone inscription there mentions that Kabilar died there and hence a rock Kabilakkal is there on his memory (See Kabilar).
Tirukoilur is located at a distance of about 40km from Viluppuram. This hill rock is situated in the center of Thenpennai river near the Veerattaneswarar temple, which is 2km from the bus stand. This rock hill is a small rock placed on top of another rock. This rock hill has a very small temple built on top of it.
Built of bricks and stucco, the temple dates back to 14th century C.E and it has a Shivalinga installed within it. This temple is considered to be Kabilar's Pallipadai (Sepulchral temple) as there was a custom of installing a Shivalinga in the Pallipadai of those who die after being a Hindu monk. According to researchers, there might have been only a Linga on the hill rock for a long time and the temple may have been constructed later.
On top of the temple are two male figures and two female figures along with divine sculptures. The female figures are considered to be Angavai and Sangavai, while the male figures are considered to be Kabilar and Malayamman. Kabilar Rock is under the control of Tamil Nadu State Department of Archaeology.
The territory of Tirukoilur in the Viluppuram district today was once the capitol of what was known as Maladu or Malayamman Nadu. This territory was ruled by the Malayammans. Their hill was called as Mullur. Malayamman Thirumudikari, a king, was one of the Kadayezhu Vallalgal (Seven later philanthropists) . Kabilar composed verses on Malayamman Thirumudikari (Purananuru 121, 122, 123, 124). The mother of Rajaraja Chola I belonged to the Malayamman dynasty. Malayammans were also the army generals of Rajaraja and Rajendra cholas.
After Velpari was killed by the Muvendars (triumvirate of Chera, Chola and Pandya kings who ruled the ancient Tamil territory), Kabilar who was friend of Velpari tried to get his daughters married off to the kings like Irunkovel and approached them. When they refused, after handing over Velpari's daughters to Andhanars (priests), Kabilar sacrificed his life by Vadakiruthal (fasting unto death facing north) (Purananuru 236).
The Tirukoilur inscription, which is believed to be dated to 13th century C.E., mentions that Kabilar married off Pari's daughters to Tirukoilur Malayamman and proceeded for immolating himself in the fire and sacrificed his life. Researchers note that this place was afterwards recognized as Kabilakkal.
This shrine was declared as an archaeological monument through G.O. No. 80/Ta.Va.Pa. Department/Dated/17.01.85, and is considered as Kabilar memorial place.
When there was a renaissance during 15th century C.E. in Tamil region after the decline of art and culture during the 14th century C.E., a new story was written for Kabilakkal on mythological basis. Kovalur Puranam titled Kabilacharukkam (Kabilar Chapter) was composed. This Puranam states that Kabilan, an ascetic, worshipped a Linga by placing it on a rock in the Pennaiyar river in Tirukoilur to remove his troubles, and then he attained liberation or Sivanadi. (feet of Lord Shiva).
There is a painting about Kovalur Puranam which was done 150 years earlier to writing this Puranam. This was painted on Tirukoilur gopuram canopy. In one of the paintings, Sage Kabilar is seen worshipping a Linga in a small temple on a rock in Pennaiyar river. Below it, there is a reference to Kabilacharukkam in Tamil. Next to it, there is a painting of Avvaiyar worshipping Lord Ganesha for Pari's daughters wedding. And there are several other Kovalur mythological scenes.
In Kovalur Puranam’s stroy of devine king, Pari is depicted as the Sinhala king. There is also a note that, after the death of Pari, Avvaiyar married off Pari’s daughters Angavai and Sangavai to Deivigan, the king of Tirukoilur. It is understood that there was a temple on Kabilakkal in Tirukoilur from 15th century C.E. to end of 19th century C.E. and the Linga in it was named as Kabileswarar.
Tirukoilur Stone Inscription
An inscription from the time of Rajaraja Chola I on the northern wall of the sanctum sanctorum of the Veerattaneswarar temple at Tirukoilur mentions the below verses that convey that Kabilar the ascetic poet self immolated after getting Pari's daughter's married to king Malaiyaman.
"Senchor kabilan murivan thadakkai
Parithannadaikalap pennai malayarkuthavi
Minalpugum visumbin veeduperenni
Anthariksham sela kanalpugum pennai
Alaipunal azhuvathu kabilak kallathu"
- Kabilar Kundru, Department of Archaeology
- Kabilakal, Kudavayil Balasubramanian, varalaaru.com
- Kabilar Kundru, India temple tour
- Kabilar Kundru video