இந்தப் பக்கத்தை தமிழில் வாசிக்க: அ. மாதவையா
A. Madhaviah [A. Madhavaiyar] (August 16, 1872 - October 22, 1925), was one of the pioneering Tamil novelists. One of his earliest novels published in Tamil was Padmavathi Sarithiram. A. Madhaviah, as a social reformer, advocated female education and widows' remarriage. He also wrote novels in English, including Clarinda.
M Vethasagayakumar, a Tamil literary critic, wrote about M. Madhaviah's name in Solpudhidhu magazine in the year 2000. He says A. Madhaviah's name was mentioned as Madhavaiya in later texts, but in the books published during his lifetime Madhavaiyar was the name used. This was refuted by researcher S. Theodore Baskaran, who noted that the name plate in Madhaviah's home recorded the name 'A. Madhaviah' and also that he had written as Madhaviah in his English texts. Researcher Aravind Swaminathan observed that during his old age, A. Madhaviah wrote his name as Madhavaiyar in Panchamirtham, the text which was printed and published at that time.
Birth & Youth
A. Madhaviah was born to Anantharamaiyar and Meenakshi Ammal on August 16,1872 in the village of Perunkulam, near Tirunelveli. He had a distinguished genealogy that can be traced back to Anantha Avadhani, a scholar from Perunkulam. A. Madhaviah's son M. Krishnan has recorded their ancestry from Anantha Avadhani as follows: Anantha Avadhani, Mahadeva Pattar, Ananthavan Adigal, Yagnanarayanan, Ananthanarayanayar or Appavaiyar, A. Madhaviah. Researcher Kala Subramaniam mentions that A. Madhaviah was born a Telugu Brahmin of the Vadamar sect and later settled in Tamil Nadu. [Prologue for the Tamizhini Publication of novel Muthumeenakshi] . The family of A. Madhaviah had rights over the Perunkulam Yagnanarayanar temple. A. Madhaviah named the house he built in Chennai as 'Perunkulam Illam' (Perunkulam House)
A. Madhaviah completed his schooling in 1887 in Tirunelveli district. He paid for accommodation and food at the houses in Tirunelveli for studying. His has described this life in his novel. A. Madhaviah learned Tamil traditionally from Lakshmana Pothi. He completed his bachelor's degree (B.A) in 1892 at the Madras Christian College, Chennai. He was fascinated by the ideas of his college principal, William Miller. He excelled in the languages Tamil and English and graduated first in his class.
A. Madhaviah was 171 centimeters tall and weighed 67 kilograms. His son M. Krishnan documents that father A. Madhaviah was strong built with lean composition. He had dusky complexion and a loud voice. A. Madhaviah was an expert swimmer. According to M. Krishnan's records, his father competed with Pavanandham Pillai of the Chennai police force and won in swimming at sea. A. Madhaviah was also interested in horse riding and travelled long distances in horses during winter. It is mentioned that Madhaviah has two horses from M. Krishnan's memoirs.
A. Madhaviah married at the age of fifteen (1887) to a eleven year old Meenakshi from Narasinganallur. He had eight children, five daughters and three sons. Meenambal, Lakshmi, Visalakshi, Muthlakshmi, Sarasvathi and M. Anandha Nararayanan, M. Yagja Narayanan M. Krishnan.
A. Madhaviah had a close relationship with his children. He opposed the traditions of that time and sent his daughter Lakshmi to London to study. He employed qualified teachers to teach painting to another daughter Muthulakshmi.
Visalakshi Ammal, the daughter of Madhaviah, wrote stories and articles under the name of Kasini. Her short story Moondril Ethu (Which of the Three) was published in Panchamirtham magazine. The stories written by Madhaviah's family together were compiled under the name Munnila by the Dinamani Press whose editor was P. Sri Acharya .
A. Madhaviah's daughter Lakshmi was tortured by her in-laws and was later estranged. Madhaviah then got divorce for his daughter and sent her for higher education. This created intense opposition in the brahmin society of that time, but A. Madhaviah did not mind this. ( It is said that Madhaviah considered converting to Christianity during this time). Lakshmi completed her higher education in London and worked as a professor and head in Chennai Queen Mary's College English department. M. Krishnan's biography states that after the death of Madhaviah, Lakshmi cared for their family.
M. Krishnan, son of A. Madhaviah, is a renowned author who has written ecological essays in English.
A. Madhaviah worked as a teacher at the Madras Christian College after graduating from the same college. In 1893, while doing his Masters, he secured the first rank in the examination conducted by the Salt and Abkari department and took charge as the Salt Inspector in the Kancham district of Andhra Pradesh. During his employment, his superior H.A.B. Vernon has written notes about his non-obedience. A man of Anglo-indian origin got promoted despite A. Madhaviah's seniority. When Madhaviah lodged a complaint against this, he was transferred to Kalla-Ganjam district in Andhra. Madhaviah bravely captured the group of drug lords who were very strong there with a pistol. For this, he received prize and promotion.
He retired from government service in 1917 and returned to Chennai. He took part in many academic works and was elected to the senate position at the University of Madras and remined there until death.
Interest in Music
A. Madhaviah was interested in Carnatic music. He was close with Ramanathapuram Srinivasa Iyengar also called as Poochi Iyengar. He was associated with musicians like singers Sanmuga Vadivu, Poongavanam and Veenai Dhanammal.
During his college days, Madhaviah wrote stories and articles in English for the Madras Christian College magazine, edited and published by William Miller. He wanted to continue writing in English and used the pen name Pamba (as an acronym for Perunkulam Appavaiyar Madhaviyar, B.A.). A. Madhaviah has also written under pseudonyms like Amuthakavi, Indudasan and Konakopalan.
He started writing a series called Savitriyin Kathaigal' (Savitri's Stories) in a magazine started in 1892 by his friend C.V Swaminathayar named Viveka Chintamani. In 1892, the series was stopped by its editor due to severe criticism. Only six chapters were published once in two months. For the other articles in the magazine A. Madhaviah used his real name and for Savitriyin Kadhai, he used the pen name Savitri.
The first novel A. Madhaviah began writing was Savithriyin Kadhai (Savitri's story). He stopped that in between and wrote the novel Padmavathi Sarithiram in 1898. Encouraged by the response to the novel, he completed and published Savitri's story under the title 'Muthumeenakshi'. The novel, published in 1903, met with severe criticism. A. Krishnan, son of A. Madhaviah, mentions that there were strong condemnations then in The Hindu newspaper. A. Madhaviah did not write in Tamil for the next six years. He wrote only poems in English for Madras Christian College magazine during the time.
The first volume of the novel 'Padmavathi Sarithiram' was published in 1898. In a foreword written in English, Madhaviah says that he thought the book may not be well received by the readers and therefore did not continue to write it. But to the contrary the novel was welcomed by all. Researchers note that there were two reviews in English and in Tamil. V.G. Suryanarayana Sastri, a Tamil scholar known as 'Parithimar Kalaignar', praised the novel and wrote that there was no need for any hesitation on the part of A. Madhaviah about the novel. Inspired by this, Madhaviah wrote the second part in 1899. In 1899 the two volumes were published together as a single book. He started writing a sequel to it in 1923 in Panchamirtham magazine. He died before it was completed.
In 1910, A. Madhaviah wrote short stories under the pseudonym Kusikar in The Hindu English daily. A total of 27 short stories were written by him. A. Madhaviah belonged to the Kaushika clan, so he chose the name Kusikar. Although these stories were critical of prevailing social practices, they were full of wit and humor. Moreover they formally resembled the Paramartha Guru tales that were very popular in Tamil. These stories were well received among the readers. They were published as a book by the Hindu under the title Kusikar's short stories. Later Madhaviah translated 22 of these short stories into Tamil and published them under the name Kusikarin Kutti Kathaigal. In his literary journal Panchamirtham, A. Madhaviah wrote four short stories, including Kannan Perunduthu. He had earlier written a short story in Tamilnesan magazine.
In 1914, A. Madhaviah won the first prize in a poetry competition called Indhiya Kummi. Subramanya Bharathi also took part in this competition, information about this can be found in some books about his life. A. Madhaviah was not directly involved in the national independence struggle, but he wrote poems in support of the national movement.
A. Madhaviah adapted Shakespeare's Othello and wrote the play Udayalan in Tamil. He also wrote short operas.
Works in English
A. Madhaviah's first English novel Thillai Govindan is one of the earliest Indian novels published in London. He also wrote English novels Satyanandan (1909), Clarinda (1915) and Lieutenant Panchu (1915). A collection of his English poems, Dox vs Dox, is no longer available. A. Madhaviah wrote the legends of Markandeyan, Nandanar and Manimegalai for children, in English.
A. Madhaviah wrote commentries for selected verses from Silappathikaram, Kambaramayanam and Manimegalai. They are compiled under the title of Ilakkiya Selvam' (Literary Wealth).
Bharati & Madhaviah
Researchers have written about the relationship between A. Madhaviah and C. Subramanya Bharathi. From the magazine A. Madhaviah - Oru Vivarapadhivu (Kalachuvadu) was written by A. Madhaviah's son M. Krishnan, it can be found that in 1914 a poem competition called 'Indhiya Kummi' A. Madhaviah got the first prize and it is mentioned that C. Subramanya Bharathi participated in and got third prize in the same competition. But Bharathi has not mentioned anything about this. A. Madhaviah's poem began like this 'Indhiya madhavin sundhara padhangal vanangividuvom vaarumae' and had lines like this Annaiyum mukkadu podalaache! Eni aanmaiyum undo verum paeche!'.
Bharathiyar had awareness of the social reformist ideologies and activities of A. Madhaviah. Bharathi supported A. Madhaviah's objection to old men marrying a young women in Swadesamitran magazine in 1915. A. Madhaviah's daughter M. Muthulakshmi stated during an interview that Bharathi visited their home to V. R. Devika from 'The Hindu' newspaper on June 1, 2021. (Unknown Tamil World)
A. Madhavaiya was in touch with Tamil scholars like R. Raghavaiyangar, M. Raghavaiyangar, C.W. Thamotharampillai Anantharamaiyar, K. S. Venkataramani, U.V. Swaminatha Iyer and Francis Kingsbury.
A. Madhaviah wrote a treatise about the Telugu folk deity Mathangi, called "Mathangi: A Curious Religious Institution". In it he describes how the worship of Mathangi continued in the Telugu clans that migrated to Tamil Nadu, according to Tamil customs. It is considered one of the pioneering studies in Tamil folklore.
When A. Madhaviah came to Chennai in 1917, he started an organization called the Tamil Education Society with the aim of spreading education. As part of this organization he started a magazine called Tamilnesan. After a few issues, he left it in charge of his son-in-law P.N. Appusamy.
In 1924 he launched the monthly magazine Panchamirtham in the month of Chittirai (April). This magazine was solely for literature. He began writing the third volume of Padmavathi Sarithiram in this journal and died shortly afterwards. In 1925, with his death, Panchamirtham magazine was stopped. A total of 25 issues had been published.
A. Madhaviah was actively involved in women's education, prevention of child marriage and in promoting women's remarriage. Both the novels 'Padmavathi Sarithiram' and 'Muthumeenakshi' are based on the theme of women's education.
When A. Madhaviah's daughter became a widow at a young age, he arranged for her further education and remarriage. It created a great opposition in the society during those days. It is said that he even considered converting to Christianity.
Unlike B R Rajam Iyer, an early Tamil novelist comparable to A. Madhaviah, A. Madhaviah remained critical of the Hindu religion. He criticized and parodied Hindu traditions in stories such as 'Sasthapreethi' and 'Kannan Perunduthu'. In his novels 'Satyanandan' and 'Clarinda', he portrayed Christianity as a way to liberate oneself from social oppression. But in later novels he denounced the proselytizing techniques of Protestant Christianity. He often spoke about the need for Indians to liberate themselves from in influence of European thought. Researcher Kristen Bergman considers that A. Madhaviah was ambivalent about Christianity. According to writer Manaseegan, A. Madhaviah had a secular, atheistic outlook.
Among the early novelists, P.R. Rajam Iyer was comparable to A. Madhaviah, however, he was unlike Rajam Iyer and remained without affiliations to the Hindu religion. Madhaviah criticized and mocked the Hindu traditions which were portrayed in short stories like Sasthapreeti and Kannan Perunthudhu. In the novels, Satyanandan and Clarinda A. Madhavaiah shows Christianity as a way to liberate oneself from social oppression. (It is also said that he intended to convert to Reformist Christianity when the Brahmin community tried to excommunicate him when he sent his daughter Lakshmi to study)
But in later novels, A. Madhaviah denounces the proselytizing tactics of Reformed Christianity and speaks of the need to break free from European views. In his English foreword to the novel, Clarinda A. Madhaviah's son-in-law B.N. Appuswamy and editor of his Panchamirtham magazine write that Madhavaiah was a firm believer in Hinduism and was only interested in the social cause of Christianity. In the preface to the Tamil translation of Clarinda's novel in 1976 by A. Madhaviah's son M. Ananthanarayanan, says that Madhavaiah was a firm believer in Hinduism and had no religious affiliation with Christianity.
Researcher Christine Bergman says Madhavaiah was ambivalent about Christianity. Researcher Manaseegan notes that according to Madhavaiah's writings, he had a societal view of religion or an atheistic view.
A. Madhaviah is considered to be one of the pioneering novelists of Tamil. In 1892 he began writing the novel Savithriyin Kathai (The Story of Savitri) or Savitiri Sarithiram (History of Savitri). Savitriyin Kathai was the second novel published in Tamil novel after Prathapa Mudaliar Charithram (1879) written by Mayuram Vedanayagam Pillai. But it was censored four times, and only in 1903, was published under the name 'Muthu Meenakshi'. Prior to that, that B. R. Rajam Iyar published the novel 'Kamalambal Charithram' which came out in 1896. A. Madhaviah's Padmavathi Sarithiram was published in 1898.
A. Madhaviah wrote his novels with an understanding of the art form of novel writing. He begins his foreword to Padmavathi Sarithiram thus, "The English word novel and the Sanskrit term naveena, meaning new or modern, stem from the same root and mean the same thing." Long stories with fantastic, unusual events go by the name romance in the West, but a novel is different from a romance, he says.
A. Madhaviah, who defines the novel "like all other treaties (granthas), that have as their primary goal the act of 'captivating the minds of the readers and enlightening them'". He notes that he did not consider the novels written in Tamil until then as novels. The form of 'novel’ is novel [new] to Tamil, he says.
He also states in the preface that the novel is different from the old texts that educated people read, whose interpretation was often orally transmitted. A novel is a text written in such a way that anyone familiar with the language can read it, without the need for a teacher or guide to interpret it. This shows that he had an understanding of the novel as an art form which was formed as a result of the 'people-centric' idea of reading. Madhaviah states that stories should be written in plain simple language and with no commentaries. He also notes that it is customary in this form to write in the same way that uncultured characters speak. It shows his understanding of the realist aesthetics of the novel form.
In his novel, 'Muthumeenakshi' he strongly condemns the oppression of women in the Brahmin caste. His novels published in Tamil contain direct descriptions and comments written for the Tamil environment. 'Clarinda', his novel in English, is considered by critics to be his best literary work. 'Clarinda' has been translated into Tamil by Sarojini Bakkiamuthu. It is a novel based on the true story of a prostitute woman in Nellai who converted to Christianity and dug a well for the well-being of the people of the city. A. Madhaviah's English novel 'Thillai Govindan' was translated into Tamil by his grandson, V. Narayanan.
A. Madhaviah was influenced by all the common literary trends of his time. Matthew Arnold's 'Light of Asia' was one of the most influential books of his period, through which the Buddha was rediscovered like a wave all over India. Due to its impact, A. Madhaviah wrote the life of the Buddha under the name Siddhartha.
During his time there was a literary tradition of adapting Shakespeare's plays and many wrote prose plays in Shakespearean style. An adaptation of Shakespeare's Othello, Udayalan' was written by Madhaviah. Many such books were continuously written by many authors in Tamil during his time. It was a time when ancient literary texts of Tamil started coming into print. A new tradition of writing began as to make the literary style of the texts understandable to the general reader. Madhaviah's Ilakkiya Selvam (literary wealth) is a pioneering book in that category.
A. Madhaviah was elected a member of the Senate of the University of Madras on October 22, 1925. He died mid-way through a lecture to the Senate, in which he was advocating that Tamil should be included in the syllabus (B.A) as a compulsory subject.
His son Ma. Krishnan wrote a detailed biography about A. Madhaviah. It was released after the demise of Ma. Krishna
- Madhaviah: A Biography and a Novel by Sita A. Raman
- Waha, Kristen Bergman (2018-03-26). "Synthesizing Hindu and Christian Ethics in A. Madhaviah's Indian English * Novel Clarinda (1915)". Victorian Literature and Culture
- Parameswaran, Uma (1986-03-01). "3. A. Madhaviah 1872 -1925: An Assessment". The Journal of Commonwealth Literature.
- Raj Gautaman wrote 'A. Madhavaiya (1872-1925): Life and Creation'. Raj Gautaman's doctoral dissertation, this work presents a comprehensive study of A. Madhavaiya's life and works.
- Padmavathi Sarithiram (1898)
- Muthumeenakshi (1903)
- Vijayamarthandam (1903)
- History of Padmavathi Part III (1928, unfinished)
- Thillai Govindan [Translated by V. Narayanan]
- Clarinda [Translated. Sarojini Bakkiamuthu]
- Satyanandan [Translated by Joseph Kumar]
- Kusikar Short Stories (Translated from English by A. Madhaviah) (1924)
- Udayalan, a Korkkai Sinhala (Tamil version of Shakespeare's play 'Venetian Morian in Othello') (1903)
- Thirumalai Sethupathi (1910)
- Manimegalai Thuravu (1918)
- Rajamarthandam (1919)
- Barrister Panchanadam (1924)
- Poems (20 poems) (1903)
- Podhu Dharma Satkeeta Manjari (Part Two, 1914)
- The ballad of the penniless bride (1915)
- Pudhu Madiri Kalyana Pattu (New Model Wedding Song) (1923)
- Indiya Desiya Geethangal (Indian National Anthems) (1925)
- Indiya Kummi (Indian Kummi) (1914)
- Achara Seerthirutham (Ethical Reform) (1916)
- Siddharthan (1918)
- Bala Vinodha Kadaigal (Bizarre Stories for the young) (1923)
- Bala Ramayana (1924)
- Kural nanooru (Kural Four Hundred) (1924)
- Thalavai Mudaliar Kudumba Varalaru (Family History of Talwai Mudaliar) (1924)
- Dakshina Charithira Veerar (1925)
- Dox vs Dox poems (1903)
- Thillai Govindan. Novel (1903)
- Satyananda .Novel (1909)
- The story of Ramanyana .Childrens Literature (1914)
- Clarinda .Novel (1915)
- Lt. Panju .Novel (1915)
- Markandeya Childrens Literature (1922)
- Nanda Childrens Literature (1923)
- Thillai Govindan's Miscellany. Articles (1907)
- Manimekalai. Childrens Literature (1923)
- Kusika's short stories - 1916, 1923
- Dalavai Mudaliar .Research (1924)
- Mathangi: A Curious Religious Institution.Research (1924)
Apart from these, few articles, comments, etc. in Tamil were published in the magazine Panchamirtham from 1924 to 1925. Similarly, from 1892 to 1910, sixteen essays and poems written by A. Madhaviah were published in English in the College Magazine of the Chennai Christian College.
- A. Madhaviah (1872-1925): Life and Creation. Raj Gautaman. Kavya Publishing in Tamil
- A. Madhaviah's website
- Savitri Charithram - Creation of the story of Muthumeenaksi, Kala Subramanian
- A. Madhaviah: The first voice of modernity. Manaseegan. Tamilini Internet Magazine
- Madhaviah: A Biography and a Novella - Sita Anantha Raman and Vasantha Surya, Oxford University Press
- Waha, Kristen Bergman (2018-03-26). "Synthesizing Hindu and Christian Ethics in A. Madhaviah's Indian English Novelclarinda (1915)". Victorian Literature and Culture. 46: 237–255. doi: 10.1017 / S1060150317000419. S2CID 165304670. Retrieved 2021-05-23.
- Parameswaran, Uma (1986-03-01). "3. A. Madhaviah 1872 -1925: An Assessment". The Journal of Commonwealth Literature. 21 (1): 222–239. doi: 10.1177 / 002198948602100124. ISSN 0021-9894. S2CID 161124736.
- Article by Madhusudhanan on A. Madhaviah, Thendral magazine
- A. Madhaviah, Dinamani
- A. Madhaviah, Tamil Hindu
- A. Madhaviah, Venkatraman
- Unknown Tamil world, Google books
- Biograpghy of A. Madhaviah, Archive.com
- N. Muthunilavan on Madhaviah's poems