இந்தப் பக்கத்தை தமிழில் வாசிக்க: அரிச்சந்திர புராணம்
Harichandra Purana is a historic saga of King Harichandra. Even though it is called a purana (myth), it is written in epic grammar. This purana was learned by many until the early half of the 20th century. It is an adaptation of Harichandra Purana in Sanskrit and is a derivative of Arichandra Venba in Tamil. It is an epic written in the 16th century. Nallur Veeran Aasu Kavirasar is the author of Harichandra Purana.
Nallur Veeran Aasu Kavirasar is the author of Harichandra Purana. He was born in Nallur,Ramanathapuram District of Paandi Mandalam. Nallur was once known as Kulothunga Chola Nallur. The poet belonged to the goldsmith community. Veeran was his given name as a child. As a renowned poet he received the title'Kavirayar' and became known as 'Veerakkavirayar’. He was referred to as a 'Aasukavi'. Aasukavis are poets who can write poems on the spot when given a prompt.
At the Saalivagana year 1446, Harichandra Purana was first performed in Chakara Thirthakkarai mandapam at Tiruppullani Thirumal temple.
Arichandra Sarithiram was published in 1938 by Thanigai Saravanaperumal Iyer and Kanchi Kumaraswamy Desigar.
Eekadu Rathinavel Mudaliyar published Harichandra Purana in 1913, with Thirisirapuram Mahavithuan V. Govindan Pillai's interpretation. The original 1913 edition was reprinted multiple times.
The Harichandra Purana is written in the style of an epic poem (Kaapiyam). It begins with Paayiram, a preface in classic Tamil literature, and continues with Naatu Sirappu and Nagara Sirappu, commendations for country and city, and the ten Kandams, or chapters, that follow. There are 1215 songs in total.
- Vivaha Kandam (The Wedding)
- Indira Kandam (At Indira's court)
- Vanjanai Kandam (The scheme)
- Vettanjai Kandam (The Hunt)
- Soolvinai Kandam (The test)
- Nagar Neengia Kandam (Departing)
- Kasi Kandam (At Kasi)
- Mayana Kandam (At the crematorium)
- Meetchi Kandam (Redemption)
- Uthara Kandam (The Climax)
Vitiyiṉara ciḻanta aric cantiraṉ taṉ viyaṉkataiyām veṇkaviyai viruttamākki
ativitamaṅ kaliyukattil varuca kāttam āyirattu nānūṟṟu nāṟpat tāṟil
catumaṟaitēr pullāṇit tirumāl muṉṉē cakkara tīrt takkaraimēṉ maṇṭapattuḷ
katitarucīr nallūrvāḻ vīraṉ ācu kavirācaṉ kaviyaraṅkam ēṟṟi ṉāṉē
According to Paayiram, Harichandra Purana was first performed in Chakara Thirthakkarai mandapam at Tiruppullani Thirumal temple in Saalivagana year 1446.
Naatu Sirappu, Nagara Sirappu
Naatu Sirappu depicts the prosperity and culture of Kosala in ten songs (11-21).
Nagara Sirappu portrays Ayodhya's beauty, prosperity, and glory.
Vivaha Kandam (The wedding)
Harichandra, the king of Kosala marries Chandramati, the princess of Kannauj in a svayamvara (In ancient India, bride chooses the groom from a group of suitors). Devadasa is their son's name.
This is the longest Kandam in the epic. "In this Kandam, the author has exhibited his entire poetic expertise. It has all of the elements of an excellent epic", says V. Arunachalam in his book Tamil Ilakkiya Varalaaru.
Indira Kandam (At Indira's court)
At the court of King Indra in Heaven, sage Vasishta praises Harichandra for his integrity and truthfulness as a virtue. An envious Indra sends sage Viswamitra to test his integrity.
Vanjanai Kandam (The scheme)
Sage Viswamitra comes to Ayodhya, requests a contribution from Harichandra for performing a Yajna (ritual sacrifice). Harichandra vows to contribute. Viswamitra urges wildlife to invade Kosala's cattle and farmlands as part of his test. People in Kosala's kingdom become impoverished as their farmlands and cattle are destroyed. Harichandra exempts people from paying taxes for two years.
Vettanjai Kandam (The Hunt)
During the Invasion, Harichandra hunts down a Mighty Boar (Maya Varaha ) created by Viswamitra. After the hunt, he rests in Viswamitra's oasis. In his dream, he foresees a dark future. Chandramati urges her husband to be true to his dharma (integrity) in all circumstances. Viswamitra hears the injured Boar's pleas.
Soolvinai Kandam (The test)
Viswamitra, enraged by the wounded Boar's appeal, creates two women to seek revenge. He tells them to use music to lure Harichandra into marriage and ask for his venkotrakudai (a symbol of royalty and victory). The women entertain the king with music and ask as instructed, but he refuses. An enraged Viswamitra prepares to curse, Harichandra pleads to give him anything else. Viswamitra requests the kingdom of Kosala as well as the yajna contribution that was promised earlier. Harichandra accepts the offer and departs from the kingdom. He also commits to pay the yajna contribution in 48 days by working outside the kingdom.
Nagar Neengia Kandam (Departing)
People of Ayodhya bid farewell to Harichandra with great sorrow. He departs the kingdom with minister Sathyakirthi, wife Chandramati, and son Devadas. Sukra is sent by Viswamitra to disturb and test him.
Kasi Kandam (At Kasi)
Harichandra sells Chandramati and Devadas to a Kasi priest and pays Viswamitra the agreed-upon payment. When Sukra demands payment, he sells himself to Veerabagu, the crematorium's caretaker.
Mayana Kandam (At crematorium)
In Kasi, enslaved Devadas goes to gather dharpai (grass for a ritual). A snake bite kills him. Chandramati arrives at the crematorium for his burial. Harichandra notices his wife's gold thali and recognizes her. Regardless, he refuses to bury his child without payment. Chandramati is also held responsible for the murder of the young Kasi prince. Harichandra is assigned to carry out the sentence. When he puts the sword on her neck, it transforms into a garland.
Meetchi Kandam (Redemption)
Viswamitra appears and concludes that Harichandra persevered his tests and upheld his dharma and integrity. Devadas and the prince of Kasi come back to life. Harichandra regains his kingdom.
Uthara Kandam (The Climax)
Viswamitra narrates his enmity towards Harichandra's father, Thrisangu.
People and pundits learned and cherished Harichandra Purana until the early half of the 20th century.It has all of the elements of an excellent epic. Thanigai Saravana Perumal Aiyar's eloquent interpretation of Naattu Sirapu songs is available. Sandam (metered) songs are regarded for their exquisite poetry.
Many of the Mayana Kandam's songs are intense. They were incorporated in the Tamil Nadu Government High School curriculum. The 13 songs that accompany Chandramati's mourning for his son's death are well-known.
Paṉiyā ṉaṉaintu veyilāl ularntu paciyā lalaintu mulavā
aṉiyāya veṅka ṇaravā liṟanta atipāva meṉko laṟiyēṉ
taṉiyē kiṭantu viṭanōy ceṟintu taraimī turuṇṭa makaṉē
iṉiyārai nampi uyirvāḻva meṉṟa ṉiṟaiyōṉum yāṉu mavamē"
Niṟai yōcai peṟṟa paṟaiyōcai yaṟṟu niraiyāy niṟainta kaḻukiṉ
ciṟaiyōcai yaṟṟa ceṭiyū ṭiṟakka vitiyā riḻaitta ceyalō
maṟaiyō ṉirakka vaḷanāṭa ṉaittum vaḻuvā taḷitta vaṭivēl
iṟaiyō ṉaḷitta makaṉē uṉakku mituvō vititta vitiyē
Arichandran's claim that he does not lose his dharma and integrity even after losing everything.
Patiyi ḻantaṉam pālaṉai yiḻantaṉam paṭaitta
nitiyi ḻantaṉam iṉi'emak kuḷateṉa niṉaikkum
katiyi ḻakkiṉum kaṭṭurai yiḻakkilē meṉṟār;
matiyi ḻantu taṉ vāyiḻan taruntavaṉ maṟaintāṉ